Discussion 9: Problem formulation
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Each of you has analyzed yourself, your interests, and possible challenges to work with. We will discuss it today.

But until then, we will learn to say "no."

When you start implementing your project, many people will be interested in you. They will approach you with their ideas, and it may be too easy to agree with them and deviate from your goal. So now we're going to learn how to stay focused and tell people no.

Discussion: exercise
Targeted skills
In case of a limited time, be able to evaluate it correctly and reject the other person nicely.
  • Exercise
    Imagine that your classmate approaches you with an idea for an event. It sounds great and exciting, but you already have your project, it's exam season, your little sister/brother has just been born, and you're helping out with the family. You can't really buy into that idea. What would be the best ways to say no gracefully?
  • Trainer's guide
    (in case kids find it difficult to answer)
    Ways to say no

    1) Pause before you answer
    2) I am sorry I can't now, but maybe next time
    3) Please let me know to check my schedule
    4) Sorry, I can't, but X might be interested. Let me talk to them

    Despite kids' answers, the trainer goes through these points to make sure they also know these options.
Saying no is something leaders can easily do because
    • they realize that their time is limited,
    • limited time means limited tasks that we can complete,
    • if you know what really interests you and your priorities, then include only what is important in a limited list of tasks.
    You can easily say no when you know what you want to do, so you can easily eliminate the rest.

    *Essentialism: the disciplined pursuit of less. G. McKeown

    Now everyone has 1 minute to present their answers to those questions.
      • What is the issue that really concerns you?
      • Why are you the best to solve it?
      • What's the first small problem you're going to start with?
      Part 1- discussing homework
      for trainer- we don't call this homework, instead say working on the project
      Do you remember in reading material 9, you analyzed the possible challenges, you understood what small problems make up big problems, you found your strengths?

      There were also questions in the reading material that had to be answered before this meeting.
      Students present their answers while the trainer takes notes and discusses all together afterwards.
      Very good. Now everyone has their own challenges. Problems that you will try to find solutions for. Your next step is research.

      We will discuss each problem and briefly try to answer these questions.
      • Who is responsible for this problem? (certain people, establishments, before, now, etc.)
      • Who is affected by this problem?
      The trainer takes each problem and asks the students, the students make notes about their problems. The trainer discusses each question in detail.
      Part 2 - Theory| Frame problems as questions
      The trainer briefly explains How might we method.
      Read here
      Discussion- Exercise
      Targeted skills

      Learn to frame problems in the form of questions
      • Վարժություն
        You have already identified all the problems you would like to solve and the people who will benefit from solving the problem. To make your job easier and to think of solutions for these problems, frame the problem as a question. The question should have this format:

        How can we [do something] for a [beneficiary] who has a [need] given that they...

        The trainer also posts this question in the chat.
      • Guidance
        Either way, you'll be targeting the group of people you think can solve the problem. You can try to engage them with positive emotions or negative emotions/fear/anger. Suppose your problem is waste/garbage on the streets of Yerevan.

        1) If you are talking to ordinary citizens, you can use both positive and negative emotions․
        Positive- how can we make it easier for Yerevan residents to throw trash in the trash can while walking down the street?

        Negative- how can we make the citizens of Yerevan feel ashamed for not throwing garbage in the trash can?

        2) If you talk to government officials, think that PR is their motivation. How can we make the minister understand that by solving this problem, he will receive the attention of the media?
      • Examples
        Focus the question on the desired result.

        To avoid addressing the symptoms of the problem rather than the problem itself, ask yourself if your HMW question focuses on the desired outcome. In the example below, HMW's first question misses what we really want to achieve.

        For example:

        Users often call us because they are unsure about the application process.

        HMW (bad) - How can we prevent users from calling us?

        HMW (good) - How can we make users confident that they have all the information they need?

        Users of the backyard recycling bin always call the municipality and ask how it works.

        Wrong question - How can we make sure that citizens don't call with that question?

        Correct question - How to inform the citizens about the correct way to use the recycling bin so they can do it independently?
      The trainer takes any of the children's problems that thinks is the most suitable and, together with the children, makes as many How might we questions as possible for different groups of people.
      About 10th reading
      For the next meeting, read the 10th reading material and do the exercises.

      There is a long theoretical section at the beginning of the reading. You have to read completely and then do the exercises in the reading material.
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